Network Switches, Protocols and Wireless N/W

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Network Switches, Protocols and Wireless N/W

Post  Admin on Wed Jun 17, 2009 8:22 pm

Types of network switches

1. Unmanaged Switches: This is typically the least expensive type of switch, most often found in homes or small offices. They are very simple, employing plug and play technology, lacking any specific configuration options

2. Managed Switches: Managed Switches provide optional configuration options and allow for a great variety of functionality. There are several ways to operate these switches, from utilizing a remote tool like Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), to accessing the switch via a command line interface like Telnet.
Smart Switches: Smart switches differ from fully managed switches in that they only allow a specific set of modifications and functionality. Because users can only configure basics settings, they are often cheaper than the fully managed breed. Some basic functions often found on a smart switch are turning some particular port range on or off, link speed and duplex settings and priority settings for ports
Enterprise Managed Switches: Enterprise switches are the more configurable and expensive version of managed switches. They are most often found in enterprise networks among several other switches. They are more efficient for large business where accessing a central administration module can save time and money. Some advanced functions for enterprise switches are VLAN settings, link aggregation and port mirroring.

Protocols Used in Different layers

Application Layer
BGP • DHCP • DNS • FTP • GTP • HTTP • IMAP • IRC • Megaco • MGCP • NNTP • NTP • POP • RIP • RPC • RTP • RTSP • SDP • SIP • SMTP • SNMP • SOAP • SSH • Telnet • TLS/SSL • XMPP • (more)
Transport Layer
TCP • UDP • DCCP • SCTP • RSVP • ECN • (more)
Internet Layer
IP (IPv4, IPv6) • ICMP • ICMPv6 • IGMP • IPsec • (more)
Link Layer
ARP • RARP • NDP • OSPF • Tunnels (L2TP) • PPP • Media Access Control (Ethernet, MPLS, DSL, ISDN, FDDI) • Device Drivers • (more)

Steps for creating a Wireless Network.

If buying router and adapter separately, ensure your wireless router is at least as new as your wireless adapter so that they use compatible standards (known as 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n). For maximum compatibility choose Tri-mode or dual-mode 802.11b/g standards.
If you are not using Windows XP, check that drivers are available for the chipset of the wireless adapter for your operating system before you buy.
Set up your new router
If you want to share a broadband connection via a wireless router, plug the new wireless router into your internet connection point (filter/splitter if ADSL, directly into phone socket if DSL)
If you have one, turn on your broadband connection and existing external modem FIRST (wait for all lights to return to normal).
Plug your router into your PC with an ethernet cable
Turn on your new wireless router SECOND (wait for it to start up fully).
Go to your internet browser and type http://192.168.0.1 (Belkin), http://192.168.1.1 (Linksys), http://192.168.2.1 (Others) and enter your username and password for your router (often this is "admin" for username and "admin" or "password" for password)
Enable wireless capability (SSID) and enter your username and password given to you by your internet service provider.
Choose WPA (or WEP if your card cannot handle WPA) security and enter a passkey and write it down.
Detecting your wireless adapter
Note the manufacturer and model of your wireless adapter then plug it into your PC.
If your operating system does not recognise the wireless adapter then get drivers from any discs that came with the adapter or, failing that, from the internet.
In Windows XP, either right click on the .inf file and click install, or enter Device Manager and Update Drivers on the Unknown Device.
Once Windows XP recognises your wireless device it should appear in Network Connections and offer you a choice of routers to connect to within range.

Connecting to a network
Choose your router (usually the manufacturer name aka SSID), the security method and enter the passkey in order to connect to it. Use Auto DHCP unless otherwise instructed.
This should find the wireless router (click refresh until it does) and connect to the network through the new router.
Tips
Sharing files (or ensuring that your computers are really networked) and/or a printer in Windows XP, requires Print and File Sharing enabled on all computers.
In Windows XP or Vista, go to Start > Control Panel > Network Connections (click "Switch to Classic View" if you cannot see the Network Connections icon) > right click on your Local Area Connection ethernet adapter > Properties > check File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks > Click "OK"
In Mac OS X, click on the Apple menu on the Menu Bar and click on "System Preferences...". Then, click on "Sharing". Then you may select which service that you want to be shared on your wireless network. For further support, click on the Apple Support Page link for sharing on your wireless network. Apple Sharing Support
A passkey is not the same as a HEX key
Warnings
Turning on your equipment in the wrong order could cause your new setup to not work! Be sure to power on each item in order. It really does matter.
Remember to set up your security settings to prevent unauthorized access to your network. WPA encryption is much more secure than WEP.
Also remember to change the default passwords and usernames on your wireless router. Many wardrivers will travel around finding hotspots and then trying the default codes for that type of access point. This could result in you getting locked out of your own router and having to manualy reset your network.

Things You'll Need
1 Wireless adapter/modem/receiver (internal or external)
1 Wireless access point/router/transmitter/hub/switch (always external) only necessary if you need to do more than communicate between two PCs in your house.
Paper to write down your passwords (pens too.

How Does Broadband Work?

These days, "broadband" is a word that is thrown around easily in telecommunications and internet lingo, but the average consumer may not have a clear understanding of how broadband works. It’s easy to understand why; the technology industry even has trouble defining it clearly. So how does broadband work? The online Webster’s dictionary defines broadband as "A class of communication channel capable of supporting a wide range of frequencies, typically from audio up to video frequencies. A broadband channel can carry multiple signals by dividing the total capacity into multiple, independent bandwidth channels, where each channel operates only on a specific range of frequencies." Let’s take a look at each part of the definition to understand how broadband works.

The first part of answering the question ‘how does broadband work’ is to think about the phrase a "class of communication channel." We can gather from this that it is different from the normal class of communication channel that we use - our regular phone lines. Phone lines, also called baseband lines, normally carry 29.6kbps of analog data when used for voice communications. But with the advent of the internet, people began to demand faster data transmission. A regular, baseband phone line can carry up to 56kbps of data with the help of a high-speed modem, but without additional technology, that is its maximum capacity.

That wasn’t nearly fast enough to keep up with the average person’s demand for and dependency on the internet, which led to the demand for broadband. So how does broadband work? If you think of a baseband line as having one "channel" to send information, you can think of a broadband line as having multiple channels that you use at the same time. Not only that, but a broadband connection is capable of carrying a wider range and type of frequencies, meaning different types of data. And what it can carry, it carries faster. When you drive on the interstate, what happens when there aren’t enough lanes for the number of cars on the road? Everyone is forced to go slower.

The same happens with the internet. Think of your connection to the internet as a tunnel that links your computer to the internet. A regular phone line can allow only a small amount of data to pass through at a time. In comparison, a broadband is a wider (or broader) tunnel, allowing a greater amount of information to pass through your connection at one time. The breadth of this tunnel is called "bandwidth." The more bandwidth you have, the faster you can move data. With broadband service, you can also download files that require a great deal of different types of frequencies as well, such as audio and video files.

This is a partial answer to the question ‘how does broadband work,’ but the other has to do with the way that broadband services can compress and transmit that data that you’re sending. Go back to the cars on the interstate analogy. What if suddenly all of the cars could be miniaturized? What would that do to the traffic jam? Or if they could use all of the space available in the tunnel - above your head, between cars, etc. Broadband technology not only widens the channels you have, but it uses them more efficiently. Meaning you can get more out of the bandwidth that you have. Broadband makes your internet experience faster and more efficient overall

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